er più wikipedia

Pu'er traditionally begins with a raw product called "rough" (máo) chá (毛茶, lit. Er più - Storia d'amore e di coltello (film) Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. The town of Pu'er and its surrounding county derive from the tea, rather than vice versa,[7][8] but the area is now sometimes considered the appellation for pu'er proper. Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp was born on March 19, 1848, the fourth child of Nicholas Porter Earp and his second wife, Virginia Ann Cooksey. I maghi contemporanei più eminenti hanno studiato qui. The applications that make up the system share data across various departments (manufacturing, purchasing, sales, accounting, etc.) In the context of traditional Chinese tea production terminology, fermentation refers to microbial fermentation (called 'wet piling'), and is typically applied after the tea leaves have been sufficiently dried and rolled. Pu'er or pu-erh[1] is a variety of fermented tea traditionally produced in Yunnan Province, China. Some may take 10 years while others 20 or 30+ years. In recent decades, demand has come full circle and it has become more common again for hēichá, including pu'er, to be sold as the raw product without the artificial accelerated fermentation process. The bacterial and fungal cultures found in the fermenting piles were found to vary widely from factory to factory throughout Yunnan, consisting of multiple strains of Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., yeasts, and a wide range of other microflora. There had been no standardized processing for the darkening of hēichá until the postwar years in the 1950s where there was a sudden surge in demand in Hong Kong, perhaps because of the concentration of refugees from the mainland. A jiàn of tea, which is bound together in a loose bamboo basket, will usually have a large batch ticket (大票; pinyin: dàpiào) affixed to its side that will indicate information such as the batch number of the tea in a season, the production quantities, tea type, and the factory where it was produced.[12]. Some nèi fēi also include vintage year and are production-specific to help identify the cake and prevent counterfeiting through a surfeit of different brand labels. Database integration—ERP systems connect to plant floor data sources through staging tables in a database. The leaves are traditionally given one or more "rinses" before the first infusion, involving exposing them to hot water for 2-5 seconds and subsequently discarding the extract produced. From there it may be further processed by fermentation, or directly packaged. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is the integrated management of main business processes, often in real time and mediated by software and technology. There are many requisite variables for a pu'er tea to age beautifully. [13][14] Poor control in fermentation/oxidation process can result in bad ripened pu'er, characterized by badly decomposed leaves and an aroma and texture reminiscent of compost. Er Più – storia d'amore e di coltello) – 1971 m. Italijoje režisieriaus Sergio Corbucci sukurta komedija, kurioje pagrindinius vaidmenis atliko Adriano Celentano ir Claudia Mori . raw tea). In the 1970s the improved process was taken back to Yunnan for further development, which has resulted in the various production styles variously referred to as wòduī today. Sometimes wolfberries are brewed with the tea, plumping in the process. Buy new shoes, boots, sneakers and accessories from the collection. Both of these forms then undergo the complex process of gradual fermentation and maturation with time. Er Più (strumentale) (musica di Carlo Rustichelli) 3'12" Tema di una storia d'amore e di coltello (musica di Gino Santercole ) 5'25" Sotto le lenzuola (testo di Luciano Beretta e Miki Del Prete ; … ", "Antecedents of ERP systems implementation success: a study on Jordanian healthcare sector", "MRP/MRPII/ERP/ERM — Confusing Terms and Definitions for a Murkey Alphabet Soup", "B. Modular ERP systems can be implemented in stages. In late 2008, the Chinese government approved a standard declaring pu'er tea as a "product with geographical indications", which would restrict the naming of tea as pu'er to tea produced within specific regions of the Yunnan province. Grading is rarely consistent between factories, and first grade tea leaves may not necessarily produce first grade cakes. The effect of configuration changes on system behavior and performance is predictable and is the responsibility of the ERP vendor. country of origin. According to Gartner, every company must define their own postmodern ERP strategy, based on company's internal and external needs, operations and processes. Continuavano a chiamarli... er più, er meno è un film del 1972, diretto dal regista Giuseppe Orlandini. 0 references. The letter u ultimately comes from the Phoenician letter waw by way of the letter y.See the letter y for details.. During the late Middle Ages, two forms of 'v' developed, which were both used for its ancestor 'u' and modern 'v'.The pointed form 'v' was written at the beginning of a word, while a rounded form 'u' was used in the middle or end, regardless of sound. [4] Aging the tea increases its value, but may be unprofitable. This changes, however, with a more open environment, requiring further scrutiny of ERP security features and internal company policies regarding security. Generally balls contain between 5 and 10 grams of compressed material. All pu'er teas undergo some oxidation during sun drying and then become either: According to the production process, four main types of pu'er are commonly available on the market: Pu'er is produced in almost every county and prefecture in the province. For example, an organization can select the type of inventory accounting—FIFO or LIFO—to use; whether to recognize revenue by geographical unit, product line, or distribution channel; and whether to pay for shipping costs on customer returns.[42]. Rather than just manage buying, selling, etc.—ERP II leverages information in the resources under its management to help the enterprise collaborate with other enterprises. They can also help comply with de facto industry standards, such as electronic funds transfer. First, a specific quantity of dry máochá or ripened tea leaves pertaining to the final weight of the bingcha is weighed out. These properties include: Just as important as the tea's properties, environmental factors for the tea's storage also affect how quickly and successfully a tea ages. Human and robotic space exploration responds to the deeply rooted quest of humankind for answering questions on the origins and nature of life in Many other areas of Yunnan also produce pu'er tea. The first step in making raw or ripened pu'er is picking appropriate tender leaves. Ban Ard è dotata anche di un'unità corazzata molto stimata dall'esercito locale. 1 reference. Per vedere il walkthrough di una determinata missione, clicca sul suo nome. Over time, raw pu'er acquires an earthy flavor due to slow oxidation and other, possibly microbial processes. While this has happened, losses in one area are often offset by gains in other areas, increasing overall competitive advantage. For example, Haiwan Tea Factory, founded by former Menghai Factory owner Zhou Bing Liang in 1999,[36] has a good reputation, as do Changtai Tea Group, Mengku Tea Company, and other new tea makers formed in the 1990s. Intersex people are individuals born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones or genitals that, according to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies". ripe tea) that is then stored loose or pressed into various shapes. Because of its ability to age without losing "quality", well aged good pu'er gains value over time in the same way that aged roasted oolong does.[39]. Sadly, even in the best of circumstances, when a journal, factory information, and trustworthy vendor all align to assure a tea's genuinely wild leaf, fakes fill the market and make the issue even more complicated. IHE 1 Key G major Movements/Sections Mov'ts/Sec's: theme and 6 variations Dedication This means the software reflects the vendor's interpretation of the most effective way to perform each business process. Pu'er tea is specially packaged for trade, identification, and storage. ERP systems track business resources—cash, raw materials, production capacity—and the status of business commitments: orders, purchase orders, and payroll. It is important to check the status of ageing for your teacakes to know when they have peaked so that proper care can be given to halt the ageing process. [5], The Gartner Group first used the acronym ERP in the 1990s[6][7] to include the capabilities of material requirements planning (MRP), and the later manufacturing resource planning (MRP II),[8][9] as well as computer-integrated manufacturing. Darkening tea leaves to trade with ethnic groups at the borders has a long history in China. Over the course of history, the designated mountains for the tea mountains have either been changed[27] or listed differently.[28][29][30]. Depending on the pressing method, the edge of the disk can be rounded or perpendicular. [17][18][19] Although the microbes responsible have proved highly variable from region to region and even factory to factory, the key organism found and responsible for almost all pu'er fermentation has been identified in numerous studies as Aspergillus niger, with some highlighting the possibility of ochratoxins produced by the metabolism of some strains of A.niger having a potentially harmful effect through consumption of pu'er tea. Kann ic… Control over the multiple variables in the ripening process, particularly humidity and the growth of Aspergillus spp., is key in producing ripened pu'er of high quality. Contemporary designs, original spirit. Harvest season also plays an important role in the flavor of pu'er. The flavour and health benefits of Pu’er tea are related in part to its content of polyphenolic anti-oxidant molecules, in particular theaflavin, which is pronounced in highly oxidized black teas such as pu’er, and has a complex 3D self-stabilising structure that raises its radical scavenging ability.[6]. Partly fermented by microbial action, and partly oxidized during the natural aging process resulting in Sheng (raw) pu'er. The Benefits of Space Exploration: A grand endeavour pursued by nations seeking to gain new knowledge, inspire and drive innovations. This process produces tea known as 黑茶 hēichá (lit. Each independent center (or) subsidiary may have its own business models, workflows, and business processes. Some tongs of vintage pu'er will contain a tǒng piào (筒票), or tong ticket, but it is less common to find them in productions past the year 2000. Pu'er journals and similar annual guides such as The Profound World of Chi Tse, Pu-erh Yearbook, and Pu-erh Teapot Magazine contain credible sources for leaf information. Compared to the best-of-breed approach, ERP can be seen as meeting an organization's lowest common denominator needs, forcing the organization to find workarounds to meet unique demands. original language of film or TV show. Custom–integrated solutions typically run on workstation or server-class computers. 1971. While CNNP still operates today, few factories are state-owned, and CNNP contracts out much production to privately owned factories. Raw pu'er can be ruined by storage at very high temperatures, or exposure to direct contact with sunlight, heavy air flow, liquid water, or unpleasant smells. Smaller cakes such as tuocha or mushroom pu'erh are often steamed until they can be rubbed apart and then dried. Because of the year 2000 problem many companies took the opportunity to replace their old systems with ERP. Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia, created and edited by volunteers around the world and hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. Come credente e come persona che nella sua etica soggettiva pone la vita al primo posto non posso non reputare la donazione degli organi una straordinaria azione d'amore. Direct integration—ERP systems have connectivity (communications to plant floor equipment) as part of their product offering. Others note that their experience has taught them that ripened pu'er indeed does take on nuances through aging,[37] and point to side-by-side taste comparisons of ripened pu'er of different ages. Because the process of aging pu'er is lengthy, and teas may change owners several times, a batch of pu'er may undergo different aging conditions, even swapping wet and dry storage conditions, which can drastically alter its flavor. 1 reference. Without replacing these terms, ERP came to represent a larger whole that reflected the evolution of application integration beyond manufacturing. [17], Pu'er undergoes what is known as a solid-state fermentation where water activity is low to negligible. King. History. 户崎哲彦, 2001,"钴鉧"不是熨斗而是釜锅之属--柳宗元的文学成就与西南少数民族的语言文化, "Pu'er Vs. Pu-erh: What's the Deal with the Different Spellings? Additionally, traditionally aged pu'er has higher levels of the antioxidant and carcinogen-trapping epigallocatechin gallate as well as (+)-catechin, (–)-epicatechin, (–)-epigallocatechin, gallocatechin gallate, and epicatechin gallate than wet pile fermented pu'er. Er Più This song is by Adriano Celentano and appears on the album Er Più: Storia d'amore e di coltello (1971). [37] A pu'erh knife, which is similar to an oyster knife or a rigid letter opener, is used to pry large horizontal flakes of tea off the cake to minimize leaf breakage. Black teas are fully oxidized, green teas are unoxidized, and Oolong teas are partially oxidized to varying degrees. The Wò Duī process was first developed in 1973 by Menghai Tea Factory[failed verification] and Kunming Tea Factory[4] to imitate the flavor and color of aged raw pu'er, and was an adaptation of wet storage techniques used by merchants to artificially simulate ageing of their teas. La Prem'er-Liga (in lingua russa: Российская футбольная премьер-лига), è la massima divisione del campionato russo di calcio ed è la più importante competizione calcistica locale.. La Prem'er-Liga fu creata nel 2001 in sostituzione della Vysšaja Divizion, esistita dal 1998 al 2001, a … The Gartner Group first used the acronym ERP in the 1990s to include the capabilities of material requirements planning (MRP), and the later manufacturing resource planning (MRP II), as well as computer-integrated manufacturing.Without replacing these terms, ERP came to represent a larger whole that reflected the evolution of application integration beyond manufacturing. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, edited by Runtong Zhang, José Cordeiro, Xuewei Li, Zhenji Zhang and Juliang Zhang, SciTePress, p. 229 - 238. When bought in large quantities, pu'er tea is generally sold in stacks, referred to as a tǒng (筒), which are wrapped in bamboo shoot husks, bamboo stem husks, or coarse paper. All types of pu'er can be stored to mature (in non-airtight containers) before consumption, which is why it is standard to label them, more so than most other types of tea, with the year and region of production. Each label provides information about the origin of the materials used to make the finished and labeled product. While Yunnan produces the majority of pu'er, other regions of China, including Hunan and Guangdong, have also produced the tea. genre. Perhaps only the factories producing the recipes really know what makes them consistent enough to label by these numbers. Italy. Configuration changes survive upgrades to new software versions. The MediaWiki software is case-sensitive; pages under AA will correspond to different pages compared with Aa.On each index page, italics indicate redirects.To view the index at the precise starting point of your choosing, use the Prefix index. Harmonization of ERP systems can be a mammoth task (especially for big companies) and requires a lot of time, planning, and money. A ticket, called a "nèi fēi" (内飞) or additional adornments, such as colored ribbons, are placed on or in the midst of the leaves and inverted into a cloth bag or wrapped in cloth. However, pǔ'ěr in both its ripened and aged forms has undergone secondary oxidization and fermentation caused both by organisms growing in the tea and free-radical oxidation, thus making it a unique type of tea. The process used to convert máochá into ripened pu'er manipulates conditions to approximate the result of the aging process by prolonged bacterial and fungal fermentation in a warm humid environment under controlled conditions, a technique called Wò Duī (渥堆, "wet piling" in English), which involves piling, dampening, and turning the tea leaves in a manner much akin to composting.[4]. that provide the data. From 2008 Pu'er prices dropped dramatically. The best known pu'er areas are the Six Great Tea Mountains (Chinese: 六大茶山; pinyin: liù dà chá shān[26]), a group of mountains in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, renowned for their climates and environments, which not only provide excellent growing conditions for pu'er, but also produce unique taste profiles (akin to terroir in wine) in the produced pu'er tea. FSC labels can be found on millions of products around the world – from toilet rolls to your favourite book, to that milk carton in your fridge, and other food products. Linking current processes to the organization's strategy, Analyzing the effectiveness of each process, Understanding existing automated solutions, Manufacturing globalization, the economics of sourcing in emerging economies, Potential for quicker, less costly ERP implementations at subsidiaries, based on selecting software more suited to smaller companies, Extra effort, (often involving the use of. The prolonged steeping sometimes used in the west can produce dark, bitter, and unpleasant brews. Wet pile fermented pu'er has higher levels of caffeine and much higher levels of gallic acid compared with traditionally aged raw pu'er. [27][31] To revitalize tea production in the area, the Chinese government in 1962 selected a new group of six great tea mountains that were named based on the more important tea-producing mountains at the time, including Youle mountain from the original six. The second is that pǔ'ěr leaves are picked as one bud and 3-4 leaves whilst green tea is picked as one bud and 1-2 leaves. ", "Systematic characterisation of the structure and radical scavenging potency of Pu'Er tea (普洱) polyphenol theaflavin", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, "Changes of Chemical Components in Pu'er Tea Produced by Solid State Fermentation of Sundried Green Tea", International Journal of Food Microbiology, "Study on Main Microbes of Quality Formation of Yunnan Puer Tea during Pile-fermentation Process", "Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia", "Tempest over tea: What is the true Puer? ", "A County In China Sees Its Fortunes In Tea Leaves Until a Bubble Bursts", "The Relationship of Fluorosis and Brick Tea Drinking in Chinese Tibetans", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pu%27er_tea&oldid=998398210, Articles lacking reliable references from March 2018, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles with failed verification from August 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A round, flat, disc or puck-shaped tea, the size ranges from as small as 100g to as large as 5 kg or more, with 357g, 400g, and 500g being the most common. [citation needed]. Ripened or aged raw pǔ'ěr has occasionally been mistakenly categorized as a subcategory of black tea due to the dark red color of its leaves and liquor. ERP systems typically include the following characteristics: An ERP system covers the following common functional areas. [1] Hyresgästföreningen har ett lagstadgat uppdrag att förhandla hyran åt hyresgäster som vill ha kollektiva förhandlingar. Rather than confine ERP system capabilities within the organization, it goes beyond the corporate walls to interact with other systems. Il ladro Franco e il nobile Ciccio si alleano per diversi motivi: l'uno per sbarcare il lunario, l'altro per procurarsi 20 milioni di lire a causa di un debito di gioco. Many pu'er aficionados seek out and maintain relationships with vendors who they feel they can trust to help mitigate the issue of finding the "truth" of the leaves. This tea is then pressed into numerous shapes and sold as a more matured "raw" Sheng Cha. An EATM offers the benefit of being an off–the–shelf solution. ERP systems centralize business data, which: The term "postmodern ERP" was coined by Gartner in 2013, when it first appeared in the paper series "Predicts 2014". A common control system, such as the kind offered by ERP systems, allows organizations the ability to more easily ensure key company data is not compromised. [34][35] Customization can substantially increase implementation times. For example, a company may define that the core ERP solution should cover those business processes that must stay behind the firewall, and therefore, choose to leave their core ERP on-premises. [32] Implementation time depends on business size, number of modules, customization, the scope of process changes, and the readiness of the customer to take ownership for the project. Counterfeit pu'er is common. The interpretation of the packing of pu'er is usually dependent on the consumer's knowledge and negotiation between the consumer and trader. View Mobile Site Mostly, the issue rests on whether aging ripened pu'er will, better or worse, alter the flavor of the tea. In the past, hand lever presses were used, but were largely superseded by, A large heavy stone, carved into the shape of a short cylinder with a handle, simply weighs down a bag of tea on a wooden board. [38] The difficulties could be related to the system, business process, infrastructure, training, or lack of motivation. [21] The software structure, modularization, core algorithms and main interfaces do not differ from other ERPs, and ERP software suppliers manage to adapt their systems to government agencies. This is because Bianxiao tea is generally made from lesser-quality older tea leaves and stems, which accumulate fluorine. Two subtle differences worth noting are that pǔ'ěr is not produced from the small-leaf Chinese varietal but the broad-leaf varietal mostly found in the southern Chinese provinces and India. Different tea factories have earned good reputations. As such, the existing system may need to be kept as an archived database to refer back to once the new ERP system is in place. Unlike pu'er, some Bianxiao brick tea has been found to contain very high levels of fluorine. Trama. [27][better source needed]. Optimum water temperatures are generally regarded to be in the range of 85-99 °C depending on the quality and processing of the pu'erh. [12] On overcast or rainy days, the leaves will be wilted by light heating, a slight difference in processing that will affect the quality of the resulting maocha and pu'er. While some individuals oversee small-scale production of high-quality tea, such as the Xizihao and Yanqinghao brands,[citation needed] the majority of tea on the market is compressed by factories or tea groups. Idea Group, Inc. p. 865. Finally, wet pile fermented puer has much lower total levels for all catechins than traditional pu'er and other teas except for black tea which also has low total catechins. Free shipping and 2 years warranty. [31] These mountains are all located northeast of the Lancang River (Mekong) in relatively close proximity to one another. The ERP II role expands traditional ERP resource optimization and transaction processing. This phase is similar to composting and results in Shu (ripened) pu'er. «Найкращий (Історія кохання і кинджала)») — студійний альбом італійського співака та кіноактора Адріано Челентано, випущений у 1971 … [15], To produce pu'er, many additional steps are needed prior to the actual pressing of the tea. Factors that affect enterprises' adoption of two-tier ERP systems include: ERP systems are theoretically based on industry best practices, and their makers intend that organizations deploy them "as is". Er più - Storia d'amore e di coltello è un film del 1971 diretto da Sergio Corbucci. Recently, nèi fēi have become more important in identifying and preventing counterfeits. [28] In addition, best practices reduced risk by 71% compared to other software implementations. Customization can be problematic. 1 reference. fuzzy/furry tea) and can be sold in this form or pressed into a number of shapes and sold as "shēng chá (生茶, lit. The packaging methods change the environmental factors and may even contribute to the taste of the tea itself. Lucy Liu (born December 2, 1968) is an American actress and artist who has worked in both television and movies. Pu'er properly stored in different environments can develop different tastes at different rates due to environmental differences in ambient humidity, temperature, and odors. [citation needed]. History. French Wikipedia. French Wikipedia. A small ball-shaped or rolled tea, convenient for a single serving. Acceptance of enterprise resource planning systems by small manufacturing Enterprises. [1] Hyresgästföreningen har ett lagstadgat uppdrag att förhandla hyran åt hyresgäster som vill ha kollektiva förhandlingar. Pu'er tea cakes, or bĭngchá, are almost always sold with a:[37]. some large corporations like Wal-Mart use a just in time inventory system. As well, the lack of specific information about tea leaf sources in the printed wrappers and identifiers that come with the pu'er cake makes identification of the tea a difficult task. For example, drinkers cite the evidence of a truly wild old tree in a menthol effect ("camphor" in tea specialist terminology) supposedly caused by the Camphor laurel trees that grow amongst wild tea trees in Yunnan's tea forests.

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